国际商务英语句子翻译

国际商务英语句子翻译 | 楼主 | 2016-12-11 16:23:38 共有3个回复
  1. 1国际商务英语句子翻译
  2. 2国际商务英语教材重点翻译句子
  3. 3自考国际商务英语_句子翻译

摘要:所有这些都将导致担忧的增加被压制的供给将全球增长,基于每年累积的计算美国债务水平现在比这个国家的略高一点,过去的几年时间里这些出口已经被限制并且已经变得更加昂贵。以下是小编整理的3篇最新国际商务英语句子翻译范文,欢迎参阅!

国际商务英语句子翻译2016-12-11 16:22:57 | #1楼回目录

1.The current financing and investment system is mainly through administrative approval and examination which can’t use the market as a basic force in resource allocation. This has given rise to a lot of duplicated construction. So, there must be a reform in this regarding to make it in line with the international practice of market economy. 现行的投资融资体制主要是行政审批的制度,这不能贯彻把市场作为资源分配的基础力量,产生了很多重复建设,必须进行根本的改革,使它符合市场经济的国际惯例。

2.The definition of injury under WTO anti-dumping rules is a broad one. It is taken to mean material injury domestic industry, threat of a material injury to a domestic industry or material retardation of establishment of such an industry.

3.There is no economic regime to be perfect. In the absence of stable economic development climate and well-educated human resources, social motivation and innovation systems would be of little value. In the society full of illiteracy, no matter how good the motivation mechanism is, it can’t make prominent inventors or entrepreneurs. 任何一种经济制度都不是万能的。没有经济稳定的发展环境,没有受过良好教育的人力资本,社会激励机制与创新制度就变得毫无意义。一个普遍文盲的社会里,再好的激励机制也不可能造就出卓越的发明家和企业家。

4.With Iran announcing it would stop selling oil to Britain and France in retaliation against a planned European oil embargo, oil prices have climbed to a nine-month high. The Iranian Oil Minister has warned, the country could act preemptively, ahead of the EU ban that’s due to take effect in July. All of this is stirring up increasing concern, that stunted supply will restrain global growth.

由于伊朗宣布将停止向英国和法国销售石油,报仇反对一个有计划的欧洲石油禁运,石油价格已经攀升到9个月的最高纪录。伊朗石油部长已经警告,伊朗将先发制人地行动起来,欧盟制裁7月生效前。所有这些都将导致担忧的增加,被压制的供给将全球增长。

5.The European Union last month agreed to ban Iranian oil purchases as the West ratchets up pressure over Iran’s nuclear program. As a result, Iran—the second-largest producer in OPEC after Saudi Arabia—said it’s stopped exporting crude oil to French and British

companies, and will instead give its crude oil to new customers. This latest move is rattling already-concerned markets, pushing oil prices to their highest since May 2016.

由于对于伊朗计划西方步步逼近的压力,上个月欧盟同意禁止向伊朗购买石油。所以,在欧佩克仅次于沙特的第二大石油生产国,伊朗,说它已经停止出口原油到法国和英国公司 ,并且将把原油供给新顾客。这个最新的行动正在使已经焦虑的市场担忧,把石

油价格推向了2016年5月以来的最高点。

6.The release of the latest US economic data reveals a significant change in the balance of the economy. The third-quarter figures

show a growth of 2.6%, and this cheered the Dow Jones to new highs. But a look behind the headline growth shows a more disturbing picture. Calculated on an accrual basis, the level of US debt is now lighting higher than the nation’s GDP. In broad terms, this means that the entire annual GDP would be needed to pay off US debt, a

debt-to-GDP ratio beside which the European debt problems pale to insignificance.

美国最新经济数据的发布显示出美国经济的一个意味深长的变化。第三季度的数据表明2.6%的增长,这鼓舞道琼斯指数达到高水平。但是看看增长的背后却显示出一个更加令人不安的事态。基于每年累积的计算,美国债务水平现在比这个国家的GDP略高一点。宽泛地说,这意味着一年全部的GDP被需要来偿还美国债务,一个债务/GDP比率,与该比例相比,欧洲债务问题变得苍白无意义。

7.It creates a contradiction between market behavior and economic analysis. Many analysts, particularly in Europe, believe the high debt-to-GDP ratio should weaken the US dollar. As a result, the

market for gold is bullish, with investors turning to it as a currency hedge against fiat currencies. Additionally, the dollar’s weakneis bullish for commodity prices, which in turn helps develop inflationary

pressures. Add to this mix the US’ quantitative easing and injection of printed money into its economy, and some analysts see a recipe for significant problems.

它在市场行为和经济分析之间产生了矛盾。很多分析家,尤其在欧洲,相信高的债务/GDP比例应该削弱美元。结果,黄金市场是行情看涨,投资者转向这个市场,因为一个货币对法定货币产生对冲。此外,美元的弱势对于商品价格而言是上升的,相应地这有助于诱发通货膨胀压力。增强这一点,美国的数量上的宽松和注入印刷货币到它的经济中,两者的相结合,一些分析家看见了解决重大问题的一个诀窍。

8.President Barack Obama has said a fall in the number of unemployed Americans indicates a more optimistic outlook for the US economy, although more than 9% remain jobless. Referring to new

employment figures for the month of December, Mr. Obama said the pace of job growth was beginning to pick up.

“The economy added more than 100,000 jobs last month, and the unemployment rate fell sharply. And we know these numbers can bounce around from month to month, but the tread is clear. We saw 12 straight months of private sector job growth. That’s the first time that’s been true since 2006.

Earlier, the chairman of the US Federal Reserve, Ben Bernanke,

warned it could take five years for unemployment to drop to its usual

rate of about 6%.

美国总统奥巴马表示,美国失业人数的减少表明经济出现了更加乐观的前景,尽管失业率仍然维持在超过9%。关于12月份新的就业数字,奥巴马总统表示,就业市场的形势已经开始好转。“上个月,整个经济体共增加了超过100,000个就业岗位,失业率大幅下降。我们知道,这些数字每个月可能会有反弹,但是总体形势非常明晰。私营部门就业岗位连续12个月出现增长。这是自2006年以来的首次。”

此前,美联储主席本·伯南克警告称,失业率可能需要五年的时间才能恢复到6%的正常水平。

9.There are many contradictions between the expected price behavior and actual price behavior, and when these appear, caution is

suggested. Commodity prices are rising. Cooper is reaching all time highs. Soft commodities are moving steadily upward and putting inflationary pressure on food prices. Oil has hit new two-year highs and has the potential to move toward $100 a barrel. All of this actively suggests a weaker US dollar.

And here is the most significant contradiction. The index’s downtrend was broken on Nov. 15 when it rose above $0.78. The initial reversal has the characteristics of a rally with a fast rise to $0.815. The retreat from $0.815 to $0.795 was an important test of the developing

uptrend. The index tested support several times near $0.795 before a

successful rebound and continuation of the rising.

在预期的价格行为和实际的价格行为之间有许多的矛盾。当这些矛盾出现的时候,建议应该谨慎些。商品价格正在上涨。铜价格一直在空前的高水平上。软性商品一直平稳地上涨,是商品价格有通货膨胀的压力。石油价格已经达到两年的新高,并且有向一桶100美元移动的潜力。所有的这些活动暗示一个较弱的美元。这里有最重要的矛盾。这个指数的下降趋势在11月15日被打破,这时它涨到0.78美元以上。最初的反转具有一个回升的特性,快速上涨到0.815美元。从0.815美元到0.795美元的退却是对正在发生的那个上涨的一个重要检验。在一个成功的反弹和上涨继续以前,几次这个指数检验对于接近0.795美元支持。

10. President Obama has said he’s taking China to the world Trade

Organization over its export quotas on rate earth-minerals SD the US gets a fair deal in the global economy. The European Union and Japan have also filed complaints over the quotas.

China has a near stranglehold on the production and export of rare earth minerals that are vital to the manufacture of high technology goods from mobile phones to wind turbines. For the past couple of years, those exports have been restricted and have become more expensive as China has tightened exports quotas-something it says it does for environmental reasons. Now in what’s the first joint filling of its kind, the US, the EU and Japan have complained to the World

Trade Organization, the first step before bringing formal litigation cancels over bank shares. Analysts exprefears of local government loans turning sour.

奥巴马总统已经表示,因为稀土出口配额,他正在把中国带到WTO,这样在全球经济中美国获得一个公平的交易。欧盟和日本也就配额问题提出投诉。

中国在稀土生产和出口方面有个几乎严格的束缚。对于高技术产品的生产是极其重要的,从移动电话到风涡轮机。过去的几年时间里,这些出口已经被限制并且已经变得更加昂贵。因为中国已经加强了出口配额的控制。它说是为了环境的原因它做这些事情。现在在这种类型的首次联合提出中,美国、欧盟和日本已经向WTO投诉―在正规的诉讼之前的第一步。

11. Shares in Chinese banks may face the risk of correction if the leaders fail to deliver consistently strong performances in the second half of the year. The bank sector rallied last week on market expectations of strong first-half corporate results and policy makers’ focus on policy stability plus a step back from more tightening measures.

The 14 A-share listed banks are expected to see an average 29 percent year-on-year rise in earnings for the first half. Smaller

commercial lenders are poised to past even stronger performances with Hua Xia Bank, Bank of Ningbo and China Merchants Bank forecasting a more than 60 percent surge in net profit for the first

中国银行股票可能面临调整风险,如果贷方不能在下半年持续递交良好的业绩。上周银行部门开会讨论关于前半年公司良好的业绩的市场预期、政策的决策者集中于政策的稳定性以及从更加紧缩措施的撤回。

与前一年同期比较,14家A股上市银行预期前半年收益平均增长29%。对于过去甚至较好的业绩,较小的商业银行贷方处于危险之中,由于华夏银行、宁波银行和中国招商银行预期前半年的净利润有一个60%的高涨。

12. Full competition of the strength of the dollar index’s uptrend comes with a successful breakout above resistance near $0.815. This gives an initial upper target near $0.83―the value of target is less

important than the trend it signals. This behavior confirms strong uptrend pressure on the dollar, the exact opposite of the economy, which conducts the US dollar will weaken.

美元指数上涨趋势实力的充分竞争伴随一个成功越过近0.815美元的阻力。这产生出一个最初高接近0.83美元的目标―目标值没有它展示的趋势重要。这个状态确认对美元强劲的向上的压力,经济分析的反面,它断定美元将变弱。

13. In addition, the valuation of the bank sector, which suffered the most from Beijing’s credit control policies, has fallen to an attractively low level that may trigger buying sentiment in the market in the coming

But analysts said that the bank stocks would still face downward pressure if the end lenders fail to deliver consistently strong

performances in the second half of the year. The sustainability of the rally depends on whether the lenders could continue to deliver

strong corporate results that exceed market expectations in the third quarter.

此外,对银行部门的估价,蒙受来自北京信贷控制的政策最多的痛苦,已经降落到低得诱人的程度,这个程度可能在未来的几周里引发购买的柔情。

但是,分析家说,银行股票将会面临下降的压力,如果最终贷方在本年的下半年不能持续递交好的业绩,恢复的持续性依赖于贷款者能否持续递交强壮的公司业绩,这些业绩在第三季度超越市场预期。

14. However, the risk of rising bad loans remains a major concern among investors as the country’s economic growth may slow in the second half and local government investment vehicles would struggle to repay their debts. Bloomberg reported that Chinese banks may struggle to recoup about 23% percent of the 7.7 trillion Yuan they have lent to local governments.

然而,坏账增加的风险仍然是投资者的一个主要忧虑,因为这个国家的经济增长可能在下半年减缓,地方政府的投资工具将努力

偿还他们的债务。Bloomberg报告,中国银行可能努力偿还他们已经贷款给地方政府的7.7万亿元的23%左右。

国际商务英语教材重点翻译句子2016-12-11 16:23:20 | #2楼回目录

1、国际贸易一般指不同国家的当事人进行的交易,它涉及到许多因素,因而此国内贸易要复杂得多。

International businerefers to transaction between parties from different countries. It involves more factors and thus is more complicated than, domestic business.

2、有形贸易是指将在一国生产或制造的商品,出口或进口到另一国消费或转售。

Visible trade refers to exporting and importing goods produced or manufactured in one country for consumption or resale in an-other.

3、外国直接投资,简称FDI。投资者通过控制其投资在他国的企业和资产获得回报。

Foreign direct investments of FDI for short is made for returns through controlling the enterprises or assets invested in a host country.

4、国民生产总值指一个经济体凭借其居民拥有的资产和劳动力所生产的货物和服务的市场价值。

GNP refers to the market value of goods and services produced by the property and labor owned by the residents of an economy.

5、日本和中国是重要贸易伙伴,两国经济互补,又是一衣带水的近邻。中日贸易关系对两国都有重要的意义。

With mutually complementary economy, Japan and China are major trade partners, and the two countries are close neighbours separated only by a strip of water. Sino-Japanese relations are therefore of great importance to both countries.

6、加拿大和美国有很长的共同边境,而且大部分加拿大居民居住在边境地区。加美两佃以其富有的市场,拥有世界最大的双边贸易。

Sharing a very long common border along which most of the Canadian people live, Canade and the United States, with their respective rich market, enjoy the largest single bilateral trade in the world.

7、欧盟委员会是它的执行机构,有20个委员会,管理23个负责不同事务的部门。

Its executive body is the European Commission composed of 20 commissioners overseeing 23deaprtments in charge of different affairs.

8、尽管内部存在矛盾,外部有来自非欧佩克产油国的竞争,但欧佩克这个占世界产油量40%的组织对油价的影响是世界各国无法忽视的。

Despite internal contradictions and cornpetition from non-OPEC oil producing countries, the influence on oil prices by OPEC that accounts for 40% of the global oil production is something the world cannot afford to neglect.

9、过去十年中,亚太经济合作组织越来越受到人们的关注。由于中国在其中发挥了积极的作用,中国人尤其关注这个组织。

Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation(APEC) has caught more and more attention for the past decade, especially in China since the country is playing an active role it.

10、广阔的地域分布是跨国企业的一个特点,这使得它在资源和定价的决策上有很大的选择范围,也使它能更方便地利用世界经济的变化。

Wide geographical spread i

s characteristic of MNEs. It enables them to have a wide range of options in terms of decision-makings on sourcing and pricing. They are also more able to take advantage of changes in the international economic environment.

11、技术、资本和现成的市场是跨国企业组织带给欠发达国家的利益。跨国企业被认为是促进世界和各国经济发展的最有效的工具。

Technology, capital and ready markets are sort of benefits MNEs bring to less-developed countries. They are considered to be the most effective vehicle for the promoting of global and national economic welfare.

12、按照比较学说的观点,一国只要出口相对有优势的产品,而不是有绝对优势的产品,就可以从中受益。

According to the comparative advantage, a country can benefit from trade if only it has a comparative advantage, not absolute advantage, in producing certain product.

13、贸易的比较优势是基于比较优势理论,即各国生产相比较而言效率更高的那种特殊产品。更理想的是,各国集中专门生产它的特殊产品,然后再进行相互间的贸易。

The advantage of trade are based on the theory of comparative advantage, where each country produces a particular product more efficiently than another. Ideally, each country focuses re-sources on producing its specialty, and then trades with one an-other.

14、总的来说,国际专门化理论寻求回答的是哪些国家将生产什么产品,以及采用什么样的贸易结构。

To summarize, the theory of international specialization seeks to answer the question which countries will produce what goods, with what trade patterns among them.

15、最惠国待遇并不是什么特殊待遇,而只是正常的贸易地位。受惠国只是享有被征收关税表中最低关税的待遇。

The most-favored nation treatment is not really a special treatment but a normal trading status. The favored country is given the lowest tariffs only within the tariff schedule.

16、无形贸易也被称作服务贸易。在一些发达国家,无形贸易已经占据这些国家的国内生产总值的相当份额。

Invisible trade is also called service trade. In some developed countries, the invisible trade has taken quite a large share in their grodomestic production.

17、《买卖双方在制定合同时,如果有理解一致的具体规则可供参照,他们就肯定简单、可靠地确定各自的责任》。

If, when drawing up their contract, buyer and seller have some commonly understood rules to specifically refer to, they can be sure of defining their respective responsibilities simply and safely.

18、当卖方不得不提示可转让的运输单据,尤其是出售货物所常用的提单时,就会产生特殊麻烦。

Particular problems arise when the seller has to present a negotiable transport document and notably the bill of lading which is frequently used for the purpose of selling the g

oods while they are being carried.

19、2000年对国际贸易术语解释通则的修改考虑了无关税区的发展,商务活动中电子通讯使用的增加,以及运输方式的变化。

The 2000revision of Incoterms took account of the spread of customs-free zones, the increased use of electronic communication, and the change in transport practices.

20、书面谈判往往以买方询盘开始,发生询盘是为了了解预购货物的有关信息,包括各种贸易条件。

Written negotiations often begin with enquires made by the buyers to get information about the goods to be ordered including all the terms of trade.

21、虽然多数合同并不引起纠纷,但合同是依法实施的,任何一方当事人若未能履行合同义务,可能会受到起诉并被强制作出赔偿。

It is enforceable by law, and any party that fails to fulfill his contractual obligations may be sued and forced to make competition, though most contracts do not give rise to disputes.

22、虽然易货贸易是原始、低效,并且昂贵的贸易方式,但是发展中国家巨大的债务以及世界上大量的商品过剩使其不可避免。

Barter trade is a primitive, inefficient expensive way of doing business, but the massive debts of developing countries and the world’s oversupply of goods make it inescapable.

23、对销贸易可帮助有严重债务的国家继续进口商品而实际上向债权人掩盖出口收入。

Counter trade may help those nations, with serious debt problems to continue to import goods while ,in effect, concealing export earnings from creditors.

24、在国际贸易中,由于交易当事人很难充分了解彼此的财务信息和信誉状况,很难建立相互信任。

In international trade, it is very difficult for the parties to get adequate information about each other’s financial standing and credit worthiness, and mutual trust is hard to build.

25、如果进口国的政局稳定,而且又有出口商信任的代理人,出口商就可以采用寄售方式,待货卖出后再收回货款。

If the importing country has a stable political situation and a trusted agent there to work for the exporter, the exporter can enter into consignment transactions and get payment until the goods are sold.

26、在付款交单的情况下,进口商在承兑了出口商所开出的汇票后,便可得到单据,而付款则要晚于这个时间。

In the case of documents against acceptance, the importer will get the documents once the bill of exchange drawn by the ex-porter is accepted, while the payment will not be made until a later date.

27、卖方凭提交的正确无误的单据得到货款,买方凭规定的单据得到货物,这种双边保证是信用证独特的,具有代表性的特征。

Against the impeccable documents presented the seller gets paid, against the stipulated documents the buyer gets the goods. This bilateral security is the unique and charac

teristic feature of the letter of credit.

28、受益人要对信用证的所有内容进行认真审核,以便保证安全及时地收到货款。

He beneficiary has to make a careful examination of all the con-tents of the credit so as to ensure safe and timely payment.

29、国际贸易中所使用的信用证多数为跟单信用证,即要求装运单据和汇票提示的信用证。

Most of the credits used in international trade are documentary credits, i.e. credits that require shipping documents to be presented together with the draft.

30、可撤销信用证是指在未同受益人协商的情况下对承诺进行改变,甚至取消。

An revocable credit is one that its commitments can be altered or even cancelled without consulting with the beneficiary.

31、在保兑信用证中受益人得到双重付款保证,因为保兑银行,在开证行承担付款义务的基础上又加上自己的承诺。

Under a confirmed credit, the beneficiary is given double assurance of payment since the confirming bank has added its own undertaking to that of the opening bank.

32、各种单证上所列的商品名称、数量、金额等项目要严格地与信用证上所列的项目一致。

All the items listed on different documents such as the name of commodities, quantity, amount must be in strict conformity with those in the L/C.

33、商业发票是所要求的最常见的单证之一。它是缮制其他单证的基矗

Commercial invoice is one of the required and most commonly found documents. It constitutes the basis on which other documents are to be prepared.

34、提单是国际贸易中最重要的单证之一。有了它,合法持有者才可以到目的地提货。

Bill of lading is one of the most important documents in foreign trade ,with which the legal holder can take delivery of the goods at the port of destination.

35、常见的运输方式有水路、铁路、公路、管道及航空运输。

The widely seen modes of transport are water, rail, roads, pipe-line, and air transport.

36、运输在生产过程中起着重要的作用。一方面,它将原材料、劳动力运到所需的地方。另一方面,将中间产品运到其他厂商供生产使用或把制成品运到消费者手中。

Transportation plays an important role in production. On the one hand ,it carries raw materials and labor to the place where they are needed. On the other hand, it transports intermediate products to other producers for use in their production process, or ship the finished goods to the hands of customers.

37、保险单是投保人与承保人之间的保险契约。一旦投保人购买了保单,其特定风险就从投保人转移到承保人。

Insurance policy serves as the insurance contract between the insured and the insurer. Once the insured buys the policy, the specified risk will transfer to the insurance company from the insured.

38、由承保人从投保人处收集的保险费作为

共同基金,受损方的索赔费从此基金中支付。

The premium collected by the insurer from the insured is pooled together as a fund, and the claims of those suffering losses are paid out of this fund.

39、货物保险是一种旨在将风险从进口商和出口商转移到专门承担风险的保险一方的活动。

Cargo insurance is an activity aimed at moving the burden of risk from the shoulders of the exporters and importers, and placing it upon the shoulders of specialist risk-bearing underwriter.

40、最大诚信原则适用于各种保险,如某人要投保人寿险,他要如实告知其身体状况。

Utmost good faith applies to all kind of insurance. If a person wants to insure against life insurance, he has to tell the insurance company about his real state of health.

41、如果投保人有意隐瞒任何事情,或故意误导,其行为都被视为欺诈,因此保险合同无效。

If the insured intends to hide or mislead anything, which will be regarded as fraud, the contract is voidable.

42、在赔偿保险索赔时,凭借保险合同,保险公司将使受损人的利益恢复到发生损害前的同等状况。

In compensating claims, insurance company will restore the in-sured to the position he our she was in before a looccurred.

43、第一次民界大战之前,金本位制建立了固定汇率制,每个国家通过将本国货币与黄金挂钩来确定其货币的平价。

Before the First World War, the gold standard created a fixed exchange rate system as each country pegged the value of its currency to gold to establish its par value.

44、在特定条件下,提高利率可以吸引国外短期资金,提高一国的外汇汇率。

Under specific conditions, high interest rate will attract short-term international fund ,increasing the exchange rate of one’s own currency.

45、外汇汇率有三种形式,即:买进汇率、售出汇率和两者的平均值——中间汇率。

There are three type of foreign exchange price namely: the buying rate, the selliong rate and the average of the previous two—the medial rate.

46、国际复兴开发银行由160个国家政府所共同拥有,其贷款的主要来源是在世界资本市场上的借贷。

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is owned by the governments of 160 countries. It finances its lending operations primarily from its own borrowings in world capital market.

47、世界银行对贷款作了各项规定。它明确贷款必须以生产力为目的,必须促进发展中国的经济增长,同时还要具有偿还能力。

The World Bank has set various rules for its loaning operation. It specifies that it must lend only for productive purposes and must stimulate economic growth in the developing countries, and at the same time the loan-receiving countries must be able to repay the loan.

48、对外直接投资是国际投资的主要方式,一国居民为进行监控和

和经营通过对外投资获取各国的资产。

Foreign direct investment is the major form of international in-vestment, whereby residents of one country acquire assets in a foreign country for the purpose of controlling and managing them.

49、控制成本是一些企业进行对外投资的主要动机之一。而降低生产成本是考虑的一个重要方面。

Controlling costs is one of the major motivations for some enterprises to engage in FDI. And lowering production costs is an important consideration.

50、即时库存管理系统的引进能最大限度地降低库存从而提高经营效率。

The introduction of JIT inventory management system can minimize the inventory of the stock so as to increase the efficiency of the operation.

51、证券所起着两个重要作用,它既是长期资本的融资市场,又是各类投资债券的交易市常

The Stock Exchange plays two fundamental roles: one for capital raising market, one for various investment instrument market.

52、未上市的公司的股票不能在证交所或其他股票市场公开挂牌交易。

The unlisted companies can not trade their securities through the listing system at the stock exchange or other stock markets.

53、关贸总协定的总目标体现了各成员国的向往,即提高生活水平,提供充分就业,持续、稳定地增加收入和有效需求,充分利用世界资源扩大生产。

The GATT embodies the expectations of its member countries, that is ,to improve standards of living, full employment ,steady growing volume of real income and effective demand ,the full use of the world’s resources and the expansion of production.

54、乌拉圭回合和世界贸易组织的建立改变了世界贸易体系的性质。

The Uruguay Round and the establishment the WTO have shanged the character of the wold trading system.

55、尽管关贸总协定是以无判别待遇为原则的,但欠发达国家仍指责关贸总协定是只考虑发达国家利益的“富人俱乐部”。

Although the GATT is based on the principle of non-differential treatment, the less-developed countries still criticize it as a “rich men club” for the interest of the developed world.

56、采用强制性的自动补偿措施被看作解决发展中国家的贸易条件恶化问题的一种方案。

The introduction of compulsory and automatic compensatory measures is considered as a solution to solve the problem of deteriorating terms of trade in the developing countries.

57、为了促进欠发达国家的工业化进程,西方国家应开放他们的制造市场,或提供优惠关税政策。

Western countries should open up their manufacture markets or provide preferential tariffs to facilitate the industrialization proceof the less-developed countries.

二、英译汉

Most companies use salesmen in the domestic market because experience has shown that a good salesman is worth the price. If it is decided to sell thro

ugh an agent he should be the company’s representative and sales man in the overseas target market and be regarded as an integrate part of the company. The services provided will vary, depending on what has been agreed upon, from the most simple intermediary contract with buyers to a complete range of marketing service.

From the exporters’ point of view, one advantage of the commercial agent is that the agents’ commision is usually proportional to the sales he attained. To the principals, this means“no sale—no cost”, it is important to keep the agent continuously informed of the principal’s intention.

许多企业在国内市场都在利用推销员进行销售。经验表明,花钱雇一个好的推销员是值得的。如某一公司决定通过代理商出口,这一代理商应该是该公司在国外目标市场上的推销员员,并被视为该公司不可分割的一部分。代理服务项目各有不同,要以协议而定,从与买主的联骆到整个销售服务。

对出口商来说,利用代理商服务的好处在于:代理商的佣金是根据他的推销金额按比例支付的,也就是说,“没有销售,就没有费用”。委托人要经常使代理商明确了解自己的意图,这一点很重要。

Price and pricing policy play an important role in all marketing strategy. It is worthwhile for any exporter to pay special attention to pricing before coming to grips with overseas buyers.

Overseas purchasers are generally reputed to be professional, knowledgeable and possessing solid information as a basis for their decisions. In most cases, hey are guided in their busineactivities by a budget which in turn is based on direct costing. This means that to them the purchase price is but one cost element among sever-al others and that the total cost does not accrue until the goods have been sold to the next customer. It is therefore irrelevant to the purchasers whether they can lower the price by bargaining or, as an alternative, make the sellers take over part of their other other costs for the product. Such peripheral costs may include special packaging, price marking.

价格和定价政策在所有销售策略中起着很重要的作用。出口商在与国外买主接触之前特别注意定价问题是值得的。

国外买主一般都被视为熟悉专业,知识面广,掌握着其决策基础的确切信息。在大多数情况下,他们在业务活动中都是以预算作为指导,而预算又是根据直接费用制订的。这就是说,对他们来说买价只不过是诸多成本因素中的一个因素,直到货物售予下一个客户之前,总的费用不能增加。因此,是通过讨价还价降低价格,还是作为替代办法,让卖主承担产品的其他部分费用,对买主来说都没有多大关系。这样的边缘费用可能有特殊包装、价格标签,其他标志等。

The relationship between a sales person and a client is importa

nt: both parties want to feel satisfied with their deal and neither wants to feel cheated. A friendly, respectful relationship is more effective than an aggressive, competitive one.

A sales person should believe that his product has certain ad-vantage over the competition. A customer wants to be sure that he is buying a product that is good value and of high quality. No one in busineis going to spend his company’s money on something they don’t really need(unlike consumers, who can sometimes be persuaded to by“useless” products like fur coats and solid gold watches!)

销售人员和客户之间关系是很重要的,双方都希望能对他们的买卖感到满意,并且没有一方希望感到被欺骗。一种友好的、相互尊重的关系要比一种攻击性和竞争性的关系更有效。

一个销售人员应当相信他的产品在竞争能力中具有某种优势。一个顾客则需要相信他要买的东西是有好的价值和高品质的。在生意中,没有一个人会将他公司的钱花在他们并不真正需要的东西上。(不像顾客,他们有时会被说服而购买一些毛皮大衣和包金手表这样的“无用”产品!)

In the postwar period MNCs have acquired a global pres-ence. As one statistic indicates, for most of the postwar period stocks and flows of FDI have grown faster than world income, and sometimes trade, particularly during the 1960s and since the mid-1980s. Stock measures in particular are subject to margins of error because of the difficulties with estimating their growth. Even so, it is indisputable that multinationals have become major players in the world economy: apart from the 1970s and early 1980s, the turnover of the largest 500 companies has grown faster than world output. MNCs now account for the majority of the world’s exports, while sales of foreign affiliates exceed total global exports. Furthermore, as MNCs have grown ,there has been a significant Tran nationalization of production expressed in the emergence of global production and distribution networks.

在战后,多国公司获得了全球性的发展。正如一项数据统计所显示的,在战后相当的一段时间内,特别是在60年代至80年代中期,证券和外国直接投资数量按世界收入增长要快,有时甚至要快于贸易增长的数量。但需指出的是,因为在计算证券投资增长量存在困难,它的数字会存在误差。尽管如此,毋庸置疑,多国公司已经成为世界经济中的主要玩家。若抛开70年代和80年代早期的话,500家大公司的产值增长速度远超过世界的总产值增长速度。多国公司目前的出口占据了世界出口的大多数,其在海外的分支机构的销售额超过了世界出口总额。而且,随着多国公司的壮大,已经形成了一个全球性的生产和分销网络生产多国化的明显趋势。

Economists’ argument for free trade is that opening up markets to

foreign suppliers increases competition. Without free trade, domestic companies may have enjoyed monopoles or oligopolies(求大于供的市场情况)that enabled them to keep prices well above marginal costs. Trade liberalization will undermine that market power. Competition should also spur domestic companies to greater efficiency because they will not be able to costs of slacknein higher prices.

In addition, free trade means that firms are no longer limited by the size of their home country, but can sell into bigger markets. In industries where average production costs fall as output increases, producing economies of scale, this means lower costs and prices. In such industries, trade also increases the variety of products on offer.

经济学家关于自由贸易的争论是向外国供应商开放市场可以提高竞争。没有自由贸易,国内公司就会凭借垄断或求大于供的市场情况将价格控制在大大高于边际成本的水平上。贸易自由化会动摇这种市场力量。竞争同时也会刺激国内公司提高效率,因为他们难以将效率造成的成本转嫁到高价格上。

此外,自由贸易意味着公司不再受国内市场的规模限制,而是可以走向更大的市常当企业的产出增加,平均生产成本下降出现规模经济时,也就意味着低成本低价位的出现。在这样的企业,贸易同时也扩大了产品供应的种类。

Non-tariff barriers include standards to protect health, safety, and product quality. The standards are sometimes used in an unduly stringent or discriminating way in order to restrict trade, but the sheer volume of regulations in this category is a problem in itself. Fruit content regulations for jam way vary so much from country to country that one agricultural specialist says,“A jam exporter needs a computer to avoid one or another country’s regulations.” Plant and animal quarantine(检疫)regulations serve an important function, but often are used solely to keep out foreign products. Al-though all countries use standards to some extent, Japan has raised the proceto the level of art(技术).Differing standards is one major disagreement between the United States and Japan. American companies are often confronted by

自考国际商务英语_句子翻译2016-12-11 16:22:57 | #3楼回目录

LESSON 1 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS国际商务

1. 国际贸易一般指不同国家的当事人进行的交易,它涉及到许多因素,因而比国内贸易要复杂得多。International businerefers to transaction between parties from different countries. It involves more factors and thus is more complicated than domestic countries.

2. 随着经济一体化进程的发展,很少人和公司能完全独立于国际商务之外而存在。因此,在此方 面具有一定的知识是十分必要的,这既有益于企业的发展又有益于个人的进步。

With the development of economic globalization, few people or companies can completely stay away from international business. Therefore, some knowledge in this respect is necessary both for the benefit of enterprises and personal advancement.

3. 其他参与国际贸易的形式有管理合同、承包生产和“交钥匙”工程。

Other forms for participating in international busineare management contract, contract manufacturing, and turnkey project.

4. 国际贸易最初以商品贸易的形式出现,即在一国生产或制造商品而出口或进口到另一国进行消 费或转售。

International businefirst took the form of commodity trade, i.e. exporting and importing goods produced or manufactured in one country for consumption or resale in another.

5. 除了国际贸易和投资, 国际许可和特许经营有时也是进入国外市场的一种方式。

Besides trade and investment, international licensing and franchising are sometimes taken as a means of entering a foreign market.

6. 国际贸易和国内贸易在法制体系、货币、文化和自然条件与经济条件方面都有所不同。

International busineand domestic busineare quite different in legal systems, currency, culture and natural and economic conditions.

7. 随着经济全球化的发展, 无形贸易即使在发展中国家的国际贸易中所占的比例也逐渐增大。

With the development of economic globalization, invisible trade accounts for an increasing proportion of the world trade even in the developing countries.

8. 国际投资是国际商务的另一个重要形式, 可分为外国直接投资和证券投资两大领域。

International investment is another form of international busineand can be classified into two categories, foreign direct investment and portfolio investment.

9. 对商务知识的了解可避免产生国际贸易活动中的一些问题。

Knowledge of businewill avoid giving rise to some problems in respect of international busineactivities.

10. BOT 是“交钥匙”工程的一种流行的变通形式。

BOT is a popular variant of the turnkey project.

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LESSON 2 收入水平与世界市场

INCOME LEVEL AND THE WORLD MARKET

11. 国民生产总值和国内生产总值是表明一国收入的两个重要概念。区别在于前者强调的是生产要素的所属权而后者着重于进行生产的国家。

GNP and GDP are two important concepts used to indicate a country’s income.

The difference between GNP and GDP is that the former focuses on ownership of the factors of production while the latter concentrates on the place where production takes place.

12. 要评估某一市场的潜力,人们往往要分析其收入水平,因为它为那里居民的购买力高低提供了线索。In assessing the potential of a market, people often look at its income level since it provides clues about the purchasing power of its residents.

13. 世界各国被世界银行分为三大领域:高收入国家,中等收入国家和低收入国家。

Countries of the world are divided by the World Bank into three categories of high-income, middle income and low income.

14. 中国现在的年人均收入为 1100 美元以上,但几年前它还是一个低收入的国家。

China with an annual per capita income of over $1100 is a middle income country though it was a low income country just a few years ago.

15. 就中国来说,周围还有其他应特别关注的市场,如亚洲四小虎、东盟国家、俄罗斯等国,这些 国家都具有前景看好的市场潜力,能为中国提供很好的商机。

As far as China is concerned, other markets we should pay particular attention to are those around us: the Four Tigers, the ASEAN countries, Russia etc. those are countries with very promising market potential and can offer good busineopportunities to China.

16. 日本和中国是重要贸易伙伴,两国经济互补,又是一衣带水的近邻。中日贸易关系对两国都有 重要的意义。

With mutually complementary economy, Japan and China are major trade partners, and the two countries are close neighbors separated by a strip of water. Sino-Japanese businerelations are therefore of great importance to both countries.

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LESSON 3 地区经济一体化

REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

17. 过去的几十年,地区经济一体化越来越重要。

The past decades witnessed increasingly growing importance of regional economic integration.

18. 最著名的自由贸易区是北美自由贸易区,它是由美国,加拿大和墨西哥于 1991 年建立的。

The most notable free trade area is the North American Free Trade Area, formed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1991.

19. 经济联盟的成员国不仅要在税收,政府开支,企业策略等方面保持一致,而且还应使用同一的 货币。The members of an economic union are required to not only to harmonize their taxation, government expenditure, industry policies, etc. but also use the same currency.

20. 欧洲委员会是欧盟的管理机构之一,此机构将提议呈交给部长理事会做决定,并监督各成员国根据所制定的条约履行自己的义务。

The European Commission is one of the governing organs of the EU. It is the body which puts proposals to the Council of Ministers for decision and sees that the members carry out their duties under the treaty.

21. APEC 建立于在澳大利亚首都堪培拉召开的一次部长级会议上。当时有 12 位成员国出席,分别 为澳大利亚,美国,加拿大,日本,韩国,新西兰和东盟六国。

APEC was set up at the Ministerial Meeting held in the Australia capital Canberra attended by 12 members of Australia, the United States, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand and Six ASEAN countries.

22. 为了更好地分享商品,服务,劳动以及其他资源自由流动带来的好处,各国签署了各种协议,促进成员国间的贸易自由化。

To better enjoy the benefit of free flow of goods, services, capital, labor and other resources, countries have signed various agreements to liberalize trade among them.

23. 欧盟各国经济的成功一体化降低了跨境交易成本,实现了规模经济,欧洲企业也在更激烈的竞争中提高了效率 。

The successful integration of European economies eliminated the cost of cross-border transactions, realized better economies of scale and made the European companies more efficient through more intense competition.

24. 除了区域经济一体化,各国还可能建立商品卡特尔控制某种商品的产量和定价来为相关产品寻求更高或更稳定的价格。

Besides regional economic integration, countries may form a commodity cartel to control the production, pricing and sale of particular goods so as to seek higher and more stable prices for the relevant goods.

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LESSON 4经济全球化

ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

25. 经济全球化为世界经济发展提供了新的动力和机会,同时也使各经济体更加相互依赖,相互影响。Economic globalization is giving new impetus and opportunities to world economic development and meanwhile making the various economies more and more interdependent and interactive.

26. 跨国公司是在一个以上的国家拥有、控制和经营资产的商业组织。

A multinational enterprise is a busineorganization that owns, controls and manages assets in more than one country.

27. 许多人欢呼经济全球化带来的好处、但同时也有强烈的反对声音。

While many people are acclaiming the benefits brought about by economic globalization, there are also loud voices of opposition.

28. 跨国公司的内部交换占整个国际贸易的一个很大的比例 。

The transfer of the intra-MNE transactions constitutes a very significant proportion of total international trade.

29. 尽管公司的日常管理工作下放到跨国企业的子公司, 但重要决策,如有关公司目标和新投资等 都由母公司来决定。

Although the day-to-day running of corporate operations may be decentralized to the affiliate MNCs, the major decisions, such as those on corporate goals and new investments are made by the parent company.

30. 无论人们是否喜欢, 经济全球化已成为世界经济发展中的一个客观趋势。

Like it or not, economic globalization has become an objective trend in world economic development.

31. 经济全球化不仅涉及经济, 而且对政治、 文化、 价值观和生活方式都有重要影响。

Economy is not the only element involved in globalization since it also has an important bearing on politics, culture, value and way of life.

32. 如果一家跨国公司是原来的投资公司,它便称为母公司,一般也是这家国际企业组织的总部。If the MNC is the original investing corporation, it is known as the parent MNC, which is normally also the international headquarters of the MNE.

33. 除了总部以外,跨国企业组织也可能有不同的地区总部和业务总部。

An MNE may also have various regional and operational headquarters, in addition to international trade.

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34. 一些跨国企业有许多年的历史,它们的收入每年以两位数的速度增长,扣除通货膨胀因素比许 多国家的 GDP 增长还快。

Some MNEs have a history of many years and their double digit growth rate of revenue adjusted for inflation is higher than that of the GDP of many countries.

35. 在当今世界里, 跨国企业是一种可以跨越边界转移资源的非常重要的途径。

our world today, the In multinational enterprises are very important vehicles for the transfer of resources acronational boundaries.

36. 技术、资本和现成的市场是跨国企业带给不发达国家的利益。

Technology, capital and ready markets are sort of benefits MNEs bring to ledeveloped host countries.

LESSON 5国际贸易

INTERNATIONAL TRADE (Ⅰ)

37. 在复杂的经济世界中,没有一个国家可以完全自给自足。

In the complex economic world, no country can be completely self-sufficient.

38. 随着制造业和技术的发展, 出现了另一个刺激贸易的因素, 即国际专门化。

With the development of manufacture and technology, there arose another incentive for trade, i.e. international specialization.

39. 按照比较利益学说, 两个贸易伙伴均可从贸易中得到好处。

According to the theory of comparative advantage, both trade partners can benefit from trade.

40. 比较利益并不是一个静止的概念,一个国家可以通过自己的行动发展某种特定的比较利益。 Comparative advantage is not a static concept. A country may develop a particular comparative advantage through its own action.

41. 比较利益理论已成为现代国际贸易思想的基石。

The idea of comparative advantage has become thecornerstone of modern thinking on international trade.

42. 绝对利益学说和比较利益学说是国际专门化中的两种理论。

Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two theories of international specialization.

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LESSON 6国际贸易

INTERNATIONAL TRADE (Ⅱ)

43. 一件商品的成本会因生产规模扩大而减少。

The cost of a product will decrease with the expansion of production scale.

44. 在实际中,即使完全的专业化在经济上有利,也可能永远不会发生。

In reality, complete specialization may never take place even though it is economically advantageous.

45. 配额或者说数量限制是最常见的关税壁垒。

Quotas or quantitative restrictions are the most common form of non-tariff barriers.

46. 有形贸易指货物的进出口贸易,而无形贸易涉及的是国家间的劳务交换。

The visible trade is the important and export of goods, and the invisible trade is the exchange of services between countries.

47. 国家从事的贸易种类是多样的、复杂的,往往是有形贸易和无形贸易的混合。

The kinds of trade nations engage in are varied and complex, often a mixture of visible and invisible trade.

48. 各国政府经常采取的贸易保护主义措施也是贸易障碍,典型的例子是关税和配额。

Protectionist measures which are often taken by governments are also barriers to trade, and typical examples are tariffs and quotas.

49. “自愿”这个说法一般意味着进口国已经威胁在自愿合作不能实现的情况下将实行更大的限 制。 “voluntary” label generally means that the importing country has threatened to impose even The worse restrictions if voluntary cooperation is not forthcoming.

50. 大保险公司为国际贸易提供保险服务,并通过为其他国家的外贸保险而收取费用。

Large insurance companies provide service for international trade and earn fees for insuring other nation’s foreign trade.

51. 许多国家可能有美丽的风景,名胜古迹或只是温和的充满阳光的气候,这些国家吸引着大批旅 游者。Many countries may have beautiful scenery, wonderful attractions, places of historical interest, or merely a mild and sunny climate. These countries attract large numbers of tourists.

52. 劳务输出输入可以是个人,或是由公司甚至国家组织。对一些国家来说,它正在成为一种重要 的无形贸易形式。

Import and export of labor service may be undertaken by individuals, or organized by companies or even by states. And this is becoming an important an important kind of invisible trade for some countries.

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LESSON 7 国际贸易术语解释通则

INCOTERMS 2000

53. 包装需按运输的要求进行,在大多数情况下,卖方明确知道把货物安全地运到目的地所需要的包装。 Packing should be made according to the requirement of transportation. In most cases, the seller knows clearly the particular type of packing required for transporting the goods safely to destination.

54. 在许多情况下,应通知买方在卖方将货物启运之时或之前安排验货。除非合同另有规定,否则 买方必须支付为其自身利益而安排的验货费用。

In many cases, the buyer shall be notified to go through the inspection of goods at or before the time of shipment. Unleotherwise specified, the buyer is supposed to undertake the charges of inspection thus incurred for his own sake.

55. 进口商可以通过可转让的运输单据将货物在运输途中卖给新的买方,这类可转让单据用起来非 常方便。The importer can sell the goods to a new buyer while they are being carried by means of negotiable shipping documents which are very convenient for use.

56. 在所有条款中,买卖双方各自的义务排列在 10 项标题下。

Under all terms, the respective obligations of the buyer and the seller are grouped under 10 headings.

57. 2000 年对国际贸易术语解释通则的修改考虑了无关税区的发展,商务活动中电子通讯使用的增 加, 以及运输方式的变化。

The 2000 revision of Incoterms took account of the spread of customs-free zones, the increased use of electronic communication, and the changes in transport practices.

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LESSON 8 商业合同

THE BUSINESS CONTRACT

58. 合同依法实施,未能履行合同义务的一方可能受到起诉,并被强制作出赔偿。

A contract is enforceable by law, and the party that fails to fulfill his contractual obligations may be sued and forced to make compensation.

59. 口头业务协商指的是面对面的直接谈判或通过国际长途电话进行的商谈 。

Oral businenegotiations refer to face-to-face discussions or those conducted through international trunk calls.

60. 买方发出的询盘是为了获得拟定购商品的有关信息,它对发出询盘的人无约束力。

Enquiries made by the buyer are to get information about the goods to be ordered, and are not binding on the inquirer.

61. 有效期对于确盘是必不可少的。在规定的时间之前,或在被对方接受或拒绝之前确盘一直是有 效的。The validity period is indispensable to a firm offer, that remains valid until a stipulated time or until it is accepted or rejected.

62. 还盘是对发盘的拒绝, 一旦做出还盘,原报盘即失效而失去约束力。

A counter-offer is a refusal of A the offer which will be invalid and unbinding once a counter-offer is made.

63. 合同是在双方所达成的协议的基础上制定的, 而协议又是双方进行商务谈判的结果。Contract The is based on agreement, which is the result of businenegotiations.

64. 答复询盘时,出口商可以寄去一个报价单,其中应包括询盘中所要求的所有必要的信息。

In response to an enquiry, a quotation may be sent by the exporter which should include all the necessary information required by the enquiry.

65. 收到发盘的人可能发现该盘的一部分不能接受,并可能提出他自己的建议供进一步讨论,这就 构成了一个还盘。

The offeree may find part of the offer unacceptable and may raise for further discussions his own proposals which constitute a counter offer.

66. 不管业务协商是以书面还是口头进行, 一旦发盘或还盘被接受, 便认为是达成了交易。

No matter whether businenegotiation is conducted orally or by way of writing, transaction is considered concluded once an offer or a counter-offer is accepted.

67. 合同的构成同贸易协定或任何其他种类的正式协定类似。

The setting up of a contract is similar to that of a trade agreement or any other type of formal agreements.

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LESSON 9 贸易方式

MODES OF TRADE

68. 对销贸易一般是与有关国家的政策目标相互联系的,如应对外汇短缺和扩大出口之类的问题。The counter trade is generally associated with policy objectives of relevant countries like dealing with foreign exchange and promotion of exports.

69. 实质上,反向贸易指的是各种货物和服务的直接交换。

In essence, counter trade refers to the direct exchange of assorted kinds of goods and services.

70. 回购贸易和互购贸易之间另一个重要的区别在于回购贸易一般比互购贸易要延续更长一段时 间。Another important difference is that a buyback deal usually stretches over a longer period of time than a counter purchase deal.

71. 在正常的市场交易中, 由于使用货币及市场手段, 货物的买与卖是分别进行的。

In normal market In transactions buying and selling of goods are unbundled, because of the use of money and the market.

72. 尽管有很多好处,反向贸易可能是风险很大的事。

Despite all its advantages, counter trade can be very risky business.

在其他贸易方式中还有加工贸易、寄售、租赁贸易、代理等。

Among other modes of trade are processing trade, consign-ment, leasing trade, agency etc.

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LESSON 10 国际支付

INTERNATIONAL PAYMENT

73. 在国际贸易中进出口双方都面临着风险,因为总存在对方不履约的可能。

In international trade, both the exporter and importer face risks as there is always the possibility that the other party may fail to fulfill the contract.

74. 为处理国际贸易中的不同形势,各种支付方法便发展了起来。

Various methods of payment have been developed to cope with different situations in international trade.

75. 许多国际交易是通过汇票支付的,汇票是对银行或顾客的支付命令。

A lot of international transactions are paid for by means of the draft, which is an order to a bank or a customer to pay.

76. 即期付款交单要求进口商立即付款以取得单据。

Documents against payment at sight requires immediate payment by the importer to get hold of the documents.

77. 就出口商而言,即期付款交单比远期付款交单有利,付款交单比承兑交单有利。

So far as the exporter’s interest is concerned D\P at sight is more favorable than D\P after sight, and D\P is more favorable than D\A.

78. 信用证的目的是通过银行信誉为国际支付提供便利。

The objective of an L/C is to facilitate international payment by means of the creditworthineof the bank.

79. 只有在符合信用证所规定条款的情况下,才保证向受益人付款。

The letter of credit only assures payment to the beneficiary provided the terms and conditions of the credit are fulfilled.

80. 只要所有单据都符合信用证的规定,便认为银行履行了职责。The banks will be considered as having fulfilled their responsibility so long as all documents comply with the stipulations of the credit.

81. 信 用 证 独 特 而 具 有 代 表 性 的 特 征 就 是 对 买 卖 双 方 所 提 供 的 双 边 保 证 。 The unique and characteristic feature of the letter of credit is the bilateral security offered to both the seller and the buyer.

82. 受益人如果发现信用证中有任何与合同不符之处,便要求开证人进行修改,以便能保证安全及 时地收到货款。

The beneficiary will request the opener to make amendments to any discrepancies in the credit so as to ensure safe and timely payment.

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LESSON 11信用证

THE LETTER OF CREDIT(Ⅰ)

83. 在国际贸易中几乎不可能使付款和实际交货同时进行。

In international trade it is almost impossible In to match payment with the physical delivery of the goods.

84. 信用证付款方式对买卖双方都提供保障。

The method of payment by the letter of credit offers security to both the seller and the buyer.

85. 现代信用证在 19 世纪后半叶开始采用, 第一次世界大战后得到了实质性的发展。

Modern credits were introduced in the second half of the 19th century and had substantial development after the First World War.

86. 要么因为信用证金额过大,要么因为对开证行不完全信任,出口商有时可能需要保兑的信用证。Either because the credit amount is too large, or because he does not fully trust the opening bank, the exporter may sometimes require a confirmed letter of credit.

87. 信用证的形式、 长短、 语言和规定各不相同。

Letters of credit are varied in form, length, language and stipulations.

88. 虽然保兑信用证能够给受益人提供最大的付款保证,但它却因保兑而增加了费用。

Although a confirmed credit is able to provide the greatest degree of security to the beneficiary, it involves 4 additional cost as a result of the confirmation.

89. 即期信用证给予受益人最好的付款保障,并有助于他加快资金周转。只要受益人向银行提示汇 票和准确无误的单据, 银行便立即付款。

Sight credit gives the beneficiary better security and helps A him speed up his capital turnover. The bank will make payment provided that the beneficiary presents the draft and impeccable documents to it.

90. 如果信用证上没有明确规定是否可以转让,根据信用证的规定,应视为不可转让信用证。

If a credit does not specify whether it is transferable, it should be regarded as a non-transferable credit according to the credit stipulations.

91. 循环信用证规定,其金额用过后,在未对其进行特定修改的情况下,即可重新恢复到原金额。 Revolving credit stipulates that its amount can be renewed or reinstated without specific amendment to the credit being made.

92. 信用证极大地方便并促进了国际贸易,然而它并不能给缔约双方提供绝对的安全。

The letter of credit has greatly facilitated and promoted international trade. However, it cannot provide absolute security for the contracting parties.

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LESSON 12 信用证

THE LETTER OF CREDIT(Ⅱ)

93. 信用证按其作用、形式和机制分作不同的种类。

Letters of credit are classified into different types according to their function, form, and mechanism.

94. 光票信用证主要用于非贸易结算,而在商品贸易中一般使用跟单信用证付款。

Clean letters of credit are mainly used in non-trade settlement, while documentary credits are generally used in commodity trade.

95. 在即期信用证情况下,提示汇票和正确无误的单据后便立即付款。

In the case of sight credits, payment can be made promptly upon presentation of draft and impeccable shipping documents.

96. 远期信用证显然要使用远期汇票。 付款期限可为 30 天、 天甚至可长达 180 天。

A usance credit obviously calls for a time draft, and the usance varies from 30, 60, to as long as 180 days.

97. 如果信用证可以由原受益人转让给另一个或几个人,那么这种信用证即为可转让信用证。原受 益人称作第一受益人,接受转让的人称作第二受益人。

A letter of credit is called transferable if it can be transferred by its original beneficiary to one or more parties. The original beneficiary is called first beneficiary, and the party the credit is transferred to is called the second beneficiary.

补充:对于一笔具体交易来说,信用证不一定是最理想的付款方式。缔约双方应根据具体情况作出最好的选择。

The letter of credit may not be the most ideal method of payment for a particular transaction, and the contracting parties should make their best choice according to the specific conditions.

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LESSON 13世界贸易中需要的主要单据

MAJOR DOCUMENTS REQUIRED IN WORLD TRADE

98. 在国际贸易中使用正确的单据很重要,否则进口商提货时会遇到困难。

It is very important to use correct documents in international trade; otherwise the importer will have difficulties in taking delivery of the goods.

99. 商业发票,一般称为“发票” ,这种单据对货物的质量和数量以及单价和总价进行概括性描述。The commercial invoice, generally called the invoice makes a general description of the quality, quantity, unit price, and total value of the goods.

100. 货物在运输过程中可能发生风险损失,需要办理货物保险。

It is necessary to insure the goods against the possible risks they are exposed to in the course of transportation.

101. 已装船提单表明货物已实际装上开往目的港的承运船只。

An on board bill of lading indicates that the goods have been actually loaded on board of the carrying vessel bound for the port of destination.

102. 清洁提单指货物在表面状况良好的情况下装船,这意味着提单上未加任何有关包装或货物外表 不良的批注。

A clean bill of lading refers to one that indicates the goods have been shipped in apparent good order and condition, which means it is devoid of any qualifying remarks about the packing and the outer appearance of the goods.

103. 同海运提单类似的有用于航空运输的空运提单和用于铁路运输的铁路提单。

The document similar to the ocean bill of lading is called airway bill for air transportation and railway bill for railway transportation.

104. 提单的签发日期绝不能晚于信用证所规定的时间。

The date when the bill of lading is issued can by no means be later than that stipulated in the credit.

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LESSON 14国际运输

INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION

105. 毫无疑问,一个没有先进的运输系统的社会仍然是一个原始落后的社会。

There is no doubt that a society without an advanced transportation system remains primitive.

106. 这些方式在运作特点和性能方面不同,从而使它们各有比较优势和劣势。五种运输方式分别是: 水路、 铁路、 公路、 管道及航空。

The modes differ in terms of operating characteristics and capabilities, giving them comparative advantages and disadvantages. The five major modes are water, rail, truck, pipeline and air.

107. 过去 10 年,公司自己提供运输能力的倾向越来越大。

The past decade has seen an increasing tendency among businefirms to provide their own transportation capability.

108. 作为一个社会, 我们现在的生活比完全自给自足时更富裕, 更消闲。

a society, we enjoy a richer As and more leisurely life than we would be in a totally self-sufficient community.

109. 最近几年运输功能引人注目的另一个因素就是越来越多的使用零库存系统。这种系统是以公司 保持很少数量的生产投入的生产方式为基础的。

Another factor that has thrust transportation into the limelight in recent years is the growing utilization of just-in-time inventory systems, on the basis of a production approach in which the firm maintains very small quantities of production inputs. 5

110. 从正式的意义上来说,货物运输可定义为商品和产品为经济目的进行的移动以及这种移动对商 业的发展和进步产生的影响。In a formal sense, freight transportation is defined as the economic movement of commodities and products and the effect of such movement on the development and advancement of business.

111. 所有的运输方式以及其代表性的运载工具在整个运输系统中起着重要的作用。

All the modes and their representative carriers play important roles in the overall transportation system.

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LESSON 15 INSURANCE (Ⅰ) 保险

112. 保险是一种风险转移机制。通过保险个人或企业可以将生活中一些不确定因素转移给其他人。 Insurance is a risk transfer mechanism, by which the individual or the busineenterprise can shift some of the uncertainty of life to the shoulders of others.

113. 即使是在这种情况下,大多数公司宁可付已知的费用即保险费来转移风险,而不愿面对不确定 的风险损失。

Even under these circumstances, most of the firms prefer to pay a known cost or premium for the transfer of risk, rather than face the uncertainty of carrying the risk of loss.

114. 对企业来说损失的价值要比个人高很多。因此保险费也比一栋房子或一辆车高出许多。

In the case of busineenterprises, the values exposed to loare usually much higher and the premium charged is substantially higher than that for a house or a car.

115. 企业投保的主要刺激是他们可以腾出资金,进行其他项目的投资。

The main stimulus to the enterprise is the release of funds for investment in the production of other items.

116. 因此,货物保险是一种目的在于把风险从进口商和出口商的肩上转移到专门承担风险的保险人 一方的活动。

Therefore, cargo insurance is an activity aiming at moving the burden of risk from the exporters and importers to the underwriters.

117. 转移风险的人称为投保人,承担风险的人称为承保人。

Those who transfer risk are called insureds. Those who assume risk are called insurers.

118. 保险是一种社会机制,人们在此机制下转移风险,并从所有转移风险的成员所缴纳的基金中提 供损失赔偿金。

Insurance is a social device in which a group of individuals transfer risk and provides for payment of losses from funds contributed by all members who transferred risk.

119. 货物保险是主要保险中的一种。这些保险通常有火险,海上保险和意外事故险。

Cargo insurance is one of the main branches of insurance. These are usually listed as fire, marine, life and accident.

120. 关于运输保险,重要的一点是要认识到“是为商业服务的” 。

The important point to realize about transportation insurance is that it is “the handmaiden of commerce”.

121. 他并非想挖空保险基金,而宁愿让货物安全到达目的地。

He does not want to scoop the pool; he would prefer his cargoes to reach their destination safely.

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LESSON 16 保险

INSURANCE (Ⅱ)

122. 没有可保利益的保险合同是无效的。而任何根据这类合同提出的索赔都不会被受理。

An insurance contract without an insurable interest to support it is invalid and any claim made upon it will not be entertained.

123. 尽管错误的陈述是无意的,但保险人还是受到欺骗。从而保险合同无效。

Even though the mis-statement is unintentional, the underwriter will still be deceived and the policy voidable.

124. 将受损失人的利益恢复到损害发生前的状况的合同就是保险合同。

A contract of insurance is one which restores a person who has suffered a lointo the same position as he was in before the looccurred.

125. 赔偿金额一般包括发票金额加上运输费用及保险费再加上一个商定的百分比,如 10%。

The compensation payable generally includes the invoiced cost plus freight, the insurance premium, and an agreed percentage, say 10%.

126. 如果投保的险别不是造成损失的直接原因, 保险公司将不予赔偿。

The insurance company will not entertain the claim if the risk covered is not the proximate cause of the loss.

127. 人们对不“涉及自己利益”的东西投保就被认为是“违背公共政策” 。这就意味着鼓励犯罪。 The insuring of anything by people who are not “interested” in it is held to be “against public policy”. This means that crime would be encouraged.

128. 在货物保险中,如果我们了解使用的销售条款,就知道在任何特定的时间谁拥有对货物的权益。 In cargo insurance we know who has an interest in the cargo at any particular point of time, if we know the terms of sale which have been arranged.

129. 人们根据提议形式的书面声明,决定某项保险的保费是否合理。

The people who decide what premium is fair for a particular cover do so on the basis of written statements made in a proposal form.

130. 损失费用分摊原则规定同样的风险不能投保两次,不能从两个保险人那里获得赔偿费。 Contribution holds that a person cannot be allowed to insure twice for the same risk, and claim compensation from both insurers.

131. 保险公司有权利用被保人所享有的一切权利这一有利条件来减少其不得不承担的损失。

The insurer is entitled to the advantage of every right of the assured which will diminish the lohe has been forced to bear.

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LESSON 17 国际货币体系与汇率

THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM

AND EXCHANGE RATE

132. 第一次世界大战之前,金本位制建立了固定汇率制,每个国家通过将本国货币与黄金挂钩来确 定其货币的平价。

Before the First World War, the gold standard created a fixed exchange rate system 6 as each country pegged the value of its currency to gold to establish its par value.

133. 1944 年 44 国在美国布雷顿森林举行会议签署了协议,计划在世界贸易和货币方面实现更好的 合作。

In 1944, 44 nations held a conference at Bretton Woods, U.S.A., to plan better cooperation in world trade and currency matter.

134. 弹性汇率制从没有真正地“干净”或自由地浮动。因为中央银行为了稳定汇率采取了各种措施 对货币价格进行干涉。

The flexible exchange rate system has never been clean float or free float, because the central bank takes various measures to intervene in the price of its currency in order to stabilize the exchange rate.

135. 在特定条件下, 提高利率可以吸引国外短期资金, 提高一国的外汇汇率。

Under specific conditions, high interest rate will attract short-term international fund, increasing the exchange rate of one’s own currency.

136. 外汇汇率有三种形式, 买进汇率、 即: 售出汇率和两者的平均值—中间汇率。

There are three types of foreign exchange price namely: the buying rate, the selling rate and the average of the previous two the medial rate.

22

LESSON 18 国际金融机构

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ORGANIZATONS

137. 这些机构的共同目标是通过把发达国家的资金输送到发展中国家帮助这些国家提高生活水平。The common objective of these institutions is to help raise standards of living in developing countries by channeling financial resources to them from developed countries.

138. 国际复兴开发银行的资金有相当大一部分来自它的留存盈余以及偿还贷款的不断流入。

A substantial contribution to the IBRD’s resources comes from its retained earnings and the flow of repayments on its loans.

139. 该银行的贷款是向处于经济和社会发展较高阶段的发展中国家提供的。

The loans of IBRD are directed toward developing countries at more advanced stages of economic and social growth.

140. 国际货币基金组织旨在向那些在付款方面有困难的基金会员国提供中期贷款。

The purpose of IMF is to provide medium term loans to those members with payment difficulties.

141. 为了承担这项使命,多边投资担保机构向投资者提供担保以防范非商业性风险,向发展中成员 国政府提供咨询, 并为国际商业界与东道国政府就投资问题安排对话。

To undertake this mission, MIG offers investors guarantees against noncommercial risks, advices developing member governments on policies and sponsors dialogues between the international businecommunity and host governments on investment issues.

LESSON 19 对外直接投资

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

142. 对外直接投资是国际投资的主要方式,一国居民为进行督控和经营通过对外投资获取另一国的 资产。Foreign direct investment is the major form of international investment, whereby residents of one country acquire assets in a foreign country for the purpose of controlling and managing them.

143. 控制成本是一些企业进行对外投资的主要动机之一。而降低生产成本是考虑的一个重要方面。 Controlling costs is one of the major motivations for some enterprises to engage in FDI. And lowering production costs is an important consideration.

144. 直接在国外经营提高一个公司产品的能见度,使当地客户对他们所购买的商品更加放心。 Operating directly abroad enhances the visibility of a firm’s products, making local customers feel more assured about the things they buy.

145. 即时库存管理系统的引进能最大限度地降低库存从而提高经营效率。The introduction of JIT inventory management system can minimize the inventory of the stock so as to increase the efficiency of the operation.

146. 国外直接投资主要有三种形式:建立新企业、购买现有设施和建立合资公司。

FDI is mainly practiced in three forms: Building new enterprises, purchasing existing facilities and forming joint ventures.

LESSON 20 国际证券交易所

THE INTERNATIONAL STOCK EXCHANGE

147. 选择权是指在特定的时间内按规定的价格购买或出售一种证券的权利。

Options are contracts giving the right to buy or sell a security at an agreed price within a particular period of time.

148. 未挂牌证券市场是为了满足已经确立了地位的,但是较小的,而且不太成熟的公司的需求而建 立的。The unlisted securities market is to meet the needs of established, but smaller, lemature companies.

149. 政府满足公共部门借贷需求的方法之一就是出售金边证券。

One of the ways the government meets the public Sector Borrowing Requirement is by selling gilt-edged stocks.

150. 通过为证券的发行和交易提供中心市场,股票交易所长期为政府、工业以及投资商的需求服务。The Stock Exchange has long served the needs of government, industry and investors in providing the central market place for the issuing and trading of securities.

151. 国际 股票交易所 提供了一种 途径,使人 们的存款能 够为那些需 要资金的人 所利用。

The International Stock Exchange provides a channel through which the savings can reach those who need finance.

LESSON 21 世界贸易组织与中国

THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND CHINA

152. 关贸总协定体系(现为世界贸易组织)是通过一系列的贸易谈判或回合发展起来的,它最初有 三个基本目标。

The GATT system (now WTO) was developed through a series of trade negotiations or rounds. It originally had three basic goals. 7

153. 加入世界贸易组织对中国有益,因为它将促进中国的改革和发展,提高商品和服务的质量,降 低商品成本和服务费用, 刺激投资和创造就业机会, 改善法制。

China’s WTO accession will benefit China because it will help advance its reform and development, improve the quality and reduce the cost of goods and services, spur investment and the creation of new jobs, and promote the rule of law.

154. 世界贸易组织的主要目的是为了促进自由贸易、进一步减少贸易壁垒并建立更有效的贸易纠纷 解决机制。The main objectives of WTO are to promote free trade, further reduce trade barriers, and establish more effective trade dispute settlement procedures.

155. WTO 争端解决机制是当今国际水准上的最为活跃的体系而且对国际法的持续发展具有重大意 义。The WTO dispute settlement system is the most active one today at the international level and has tremendous importance for the progressive development of international law.

156. 尽管中国取得了很大的成就,但仍然面临巨大的挑战。一部分挑战和竞争来自于农业、银行业 和保险业, 还有一部分来自于一些国家所采取的贸易保护主义措施。

Despite all the achievements, China still faces big challenges. Some of the challenges and competition are from the agricultural sector and banking and insurance industries. And some are caused by the protectionist measures in some countries.

LESSON 22 联合国贸易和发展大会

THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

157. 尽管第一次会议没有制定出具体目标,联合国贸易和发展会议的总任务是制定、协商和实施改 善发展进程的措施。

Although no specific objectives were laid down at the first conference, the general target of UNCTAD is to formulate, negotiate and implement measures to improve the development process.

158. 在没有有效协议的情况下,一旦出口收入下降,应立即采用强制的和自动的补救措施。

In the absence of effective agreements, compulsory and automatic compensatory measures should be introduced as soon as there is a decline in export earnings.

159. 实际上西方国家在使低收入国家繁荣起来的同时,其对这些国家的出口将增加,因此也能或得 经济效益。

The western nations would, in fact, also have an economic interest when they are bringing prosperity to the low-income countries, since their exports to these countries would thus be stepped up.

160. 国际经济新秩序主要是要求发达国家提供更多的现金和贸易方面的优惠。

The new international economic order is mainly a demand for more cash and trade concessions from the developed countries.

161. 贸易和发展理事会是联合国贸易和发展会议的常设机构。

A Trade and Development Board is the permanent organ of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

162. 世界 500 强企业中有 160 多家企业总部设在美国,这 160 多家企业中有 24 家是全球前百名企 业。

More than 160 of the leading 500 enterprises are headquartered in US, 24 of the 160 enterprises are in the top 100 enterprises.

163. GDP 计算的是在一个经济体地理区域内所生产的所有实物产品和服务价值。

GDP measures the market value of all goods and services produced within the geographical area of an economy.

164. 国际商务的另一种重要形式是由一国居民向另一国提供资金,称为国际投资。

Another important form of international busineis supplying capital by residents of one country to another, known as international investment.

165. 每一份保险合同都需要有可保利益的支持,否则它就是无效的。

Every contract of insurance requires an insurable interest to support it, or otherwise it is invalid.

166. 还盘可以针对发盘中的价格, 付款条件, 装运时间或其它条款提出。

Counter-offer may be made A in relation to the price, terms of payment, time of shipment or other terms and conditions of the offer.

167. 《国际贸易术语解释通则》的目的在于为外贸业务中使用最普通的贸易术语提供一套国际解释 通则。The purpose of Incoterms is to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade.

168. 国际商务比国内商务涉及的因素更多,因而更复杂。

International busineinvolves more factors and thus is more complicated than domestic business.

169. 期权是一种合同,这种合同给予在特定时间内以商定价格买进或卖出某种证券的权利。

Options are contracts giving the right to buy and sell a security at an agreed price within a particular period of time.

170. 建立跨国企业的目的是获取利润, 利润无疑是跨国企业股东们的基本要求。

MNEs are formed for profit. There is little doubt that the profit goal represents the basic need of the MNEs’ shareholders.

171. 合同是在协议基础上制定的, 而协议是商务谈判的结果。

Contract is based on agreement, which The is the result of businenegotiations.

172. 在知识产权保护不力的国家,最好不要采用国际许可经营。

It is not advisable to use licensing in countries with weak intellectual property protection.

173. 就出口商利益而言,即期付款交单比远期付款交单有利,而付款交单比承兑交单有利。

So far as the exporter’s interest is concerned, D/P at sight is more favorable than D/P is more favorable than D/A.

174. 在国际贸易中进出口双方都面临风险,因为总存在对方不履约的可能。Both the exporter and the importer face risks as there is always the possibility that the other party may not fulfill the contract.

175. 信用证是解决这些问题的办法, 旨在通过银行信誉为国际支付提供便利。

The letter of credit is an effective means to solve these problems. Its objective is to facilitate international payment by means of the credit-worthineof the bank.

176. 银行只关心代表货物的单据,而不是所基于的合同。

The banks are only concerned with the documents representing the goods instead of the underlying contracts.

177. 银行对于货物是否符合合同不承担法律责任。

Banks have no legal obligation whether the goods The comply with the contract.

178. 合法运输承运人所有权形式有三种:1)公共承运人;2) 契约承运人;3)自有承运人。

Three types of carrier ownership are legal forms of transportation: 1) common carriers, 2) contract carriers, and 3) private carriers.

179. 货物保险是主要保险的一种。这些保险通常有火线、海上保险和意外事故险。

Cargo insurance is one of the main branches of insurance. These are usually listed as fire, marine, life and accident.

180. 关于运输保险,重要的一点是要认识到“是为商业服务的” 。

The important point to realize about transportation insurance is that it is “the handmaiden of commerce”.

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